Wednesday, July 29, 2015

University of New Hampshire's Hilarious "Bias-Free Language Guide"

Via The Daily Caller

Language as Leadership

Language has been described as complicated, intriguing and beautiful.  Benjamin Lee Whorf said, "Language shapes the way we think, and determines what we can think about."* Some writers have commented on language as the biggest barrier to human progress because, as Edward de Bono said, “Language is an encyclopedia of ignorance. Old perceptions are frozen into language and force us to look at the world in an old-fashioned way.” All things considered, individuals are both beneficiaries and victims of whatever language traditions they are born into.
Universities are places to look at the world in new ways. As a university organization, we care about the life of the mind. We offer this guide as a way to promote discussion and to facilitate creative and accurate expression.

An integral part of UNH’s mission is to continue to build an inclusive learning community, and the first step toward our goal is an awareness of any bias in our daily language. As we begin to understand bias, we explore the truths of hierarchy and oppression. When we free ourselves of bias, we are thus affirming identities that differ from our own.  When we do not affirm another person’s identity, we are characterizing an individual as “less than” or “other”. This makes them invisible, and for some, it feels like a form of violence.

This guide is meant to invite inclusive excellence in our campus community. Each step of inclusion moves us closer to a full democracy. The text was prepared for faculty, staff and students of the UNH community to encourage the full range of contributions that we offer as individuals and members of various groups. The guide presents practical revisions in our common usage that can make a difference and break barriers relating to diversity.

Diversity is a civic value at UNH. We are committed to supporting and sustaining an educational community that is inclusive, diverse and equitable. The values of diversity, inclusion and equity are inextricably linked to our mission of teaching and research excellence, and we embrace these values as being critical to development, learning and success. The Faculty Senate’s Statement on Diversity emphasizes, “We expect nothing less than an accessible, multicultural community in which civility and respect are fostered, and discrimination and harassment are not tolerated.”

Starting a Conversation about Word Choice
The following bias-free language guide is meant to serve as a starting point about terms related to age, race, class, ethnicity, nationality, gender, ability, sexual orientation and more. It is not meant to represent absolute requirements of language use but, rather, offer a way to encourage us to think critically and reflectively about the terms and phrases that many people use regularly in conversation and writing.

Our hope is to encourage thoughtful expression in terms that are sensitive to the diverse identities and experiences in our community. Language is an incredibly complex phenomenon that often reflects and affects our identities. There is wide diversity among us in usage and understanding of language based on our age, place of origin, culture and class, among other identities. This guide is not a means to censor but rather to create dialogues of inclusion where all of us feel comfortable and welcomed.

We invite your feedback, including suggestions, edits and additions. Thanks for reading and thanks for careful consideration when you speak.
What is “Inclusive Language”?
Inclusive Language is communication that does not stereotype or demean people based on personal characteristics including gender, gender expression, race, ethnicity, economic background, ability/disability status, religion, sexual orientation, etc.

Identities Matter and Words Matter
Identities are personal. It is important to realize that each person will define their own identity. Identity terms are meant for individuals to use to identify themselves and not for us to identify them. You will find various definitions depending on culture, places of origin, generation, etc.

When appropriate, ask how a person wishes to be identified, and please remember that identity terms are meant for individuals to use to identify themselves and not for us to identify them.  Use inclusive language to emphasize or focus the reader’s attention on similarities, equality and respect. Conversely, avoid using language that detracts from the sense of value of the whole person and avoid terms that exclude, marginalize, diminish or lower the status of any individual or group (e.g., “us and them” constructions). If you don’t know what to say, just ask the individual how they prefer to be identified.

In addition, avoid stereotypes and words that are derived from negative assumptions e.g., using the expression “going Dutch” for “splitting the bill”.
                                                                          Diversity, Inclusion and Equity: Core Principles
From: “Making Excellence Inclusive”, American Association of Colleges and Universities.

Diversity: Individual differences (e.g., personality, learning styles, and life experiences) and group/social differences (e.g., race/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, country of origin, physical or cognitive abilities, as well as cultural, political, religious, or other affiliations) that can be engaged in the service of learning.

Inclusion: The active, intentional, and ongoing engagement with diversity—in people, in the curriculum, in the co-curriculum and in communities (intellectual, social, cultural, geographical).  This engagement with diversity has the potential to increase one’s awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and empathic understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within systems and institutions.

: Creating opportunities for equal access and success for historically underrepresented populations such as racial and ethnic minority and low-income students, in three main areas:
•    Representational equity, the proportional participation at all levels of an institution;
•    Resource equity, the distribution of educational resources in order to close equity gaps; and
•    Equity-mindedness, the demonstration of an awareness of and willingness to address equity issues among institutional leaders and staff
Inclusive Excellencerefers to the achievement of institutional excellence through a sustained intentional, dynamic, and interactive engagement across a fully diverse campus in all phases of univesity life (curricular, co-curricular, research, and outreach). Only with an equitable inclusion of diverse peoples, perspectives, and pedagogies can optimal teaching, inquiry, artistic development, and learning occur. 
Intercultural Competence: knowledge of others, knowledge of self, skills to interpret and relate, skills to discover and/or to interact, valuing others values, beliefs, and behaviors, and relativizing one's self. Also involves the development of one's skills and attitudes in successfully interacting with persons of diverse backgrounds.

A micro-aggression is a subtle, often automatic, stereotypical, and insensitive behavior or comment or assumption about a person’s identity, background, ethnicity, or disability. Micro-aggressions may be intentional or non-intentional. They may be experienced daily by some people. The messages may be delivered in verbal, behavioral, and environmental forms (residing in the "climate" of an institution or in the broader society). For example, when women in the workplace enter a conference room where portraits of past CEOs or boards of directors are honorifically displayed, and they are all men. The implicit message is that women are less competent and/or that women may not be selected for leadership in that organization.
Mico-aggressions are delivered in many forms - politely or negatively. "I don't think your daughter is capable of doing that because of her disability", a  school principal may say to a parent in front of the student - ignoring her presence completely.
Forms of Aggression

, verbal attack
  • Example: “Why do you need a wheelchair? I saw you walk… You can walk, right?” to a person who is using a mobile chair for long-distance travel. 
  • Example: “Dogs smell funny” to a blind person using a guide dog.
Micro-insult, a form of verbal or silent demeaning through insensitive comments or behavior
  • Example:  A person exhibits a stubborn, begrudging attitude, that they will accommodate an accessibility request. The verbalization is appropriate but the tone seems insulting.
Micro-invalidation, degrading a person’s wholeness through making false assumptions about the other’s ability, causing a sense of invalidation.
  • Example: “You have a learning disability? How can you be a lawyer?” to a person with a learning disability.
  • Example: “The new international student is having language challenges.”  (More appropriately, we would say that the new international student is concentrating on learning a new language.)
Micro-aggressions hold a lot of power and especially because of their frequency in our culture. They may appear subtle and harmless, but we must address them if we wish to consider ourselves a truly civil society.
The opposite phenomenon is what Mary Rowe of MIT termed micro-affirmations. These are subtle or small acknowledgements of a person’s value and accomplishments such as public praise of a person’s work or character, or they may be acts of kindness like opening the door for someone.  The apparently “small” affirmation of appropriately identifying someone’s gender, for instance, in a social exchange, through correct language will build colleague-ships and caring relationships. All of these so-called small gestures create a healthy, more productive classroom culture or work environment.


The following is a list of terms that arise when age, class and size are discussed. Keep in mind that identities are personal; individuals will define their own identity.

Glossary of Language

: people of advanced age, old people*
     Problematic/Outdated: older people, elders, seniors, senior citizen
*Old people has been reclaimed by some older activists who believe the standard wording of old people lacks the stigma of the term “advanced age”. Old people also halts the euphemizing of age. Euphemizing automatically positions age as a negative.
Preferred: person who lacks advantages that others have, low economic status related to a person’s education, occupation and income
     Problematic: poor person, person from the ghetto
Note:  Some people choose to live a life that is not connected to the consumer world of material possessions. They do not identify as “poor”.

Preferred: person living at or below the poverty line, people experiencing poverty
     Problematic/Outdated: poor person, poverty-stricken person
Preferred: person-experiencing homelessness
     Problematic/Outdated: the homeless, which reduces the person to being defined by their housing rather than as a person first - one who does not have a home
Preferred:  person-using welfare
     Problematic/Outdated: “welfare queen”
Preferred:  person of material wealth
     Problematic: rich
Being rich gets conflated with a sort of omnipotence; hence, immunity from customs and the law. People without material wealth could be wealthy or rich of spirit, kindness, etc.
Preferred: people of size
     Problematic/Outdated: obese*, overweight people
“Obese” is the medicalization of size, and “overweight” is arbitrary; for example, standards differ from one culture to another.
Note: “Fat”, a historically derogatory term, is increasingly being reclaimed by people of size and their allies, yet for some, it is a term that comes from pain.


General Principles
Use person-first constructions that put the person ahead of the disability, e.g., instead of “a blind woman” or “a diabetic”, use “a woman who is blind” or “a person with diabetes”.

Just as it is not always necessary to convey the color of a person’s hair, for example, do not mention that a person has a disability unless it is relevant to the communication.

Avoid using language that casts disabilities as negative. For example, steer away from using phrases such as; suffers from, afflicted with or victim of, as such expressions cast disabilities as negative attributes. By the same token, avoid using the terms; handicapped,  challenged and crippled.  Nick Holtzhum, former UNH student said, “Being disabled just gives you different means to do the same things that others do.”
Watch the Metaphors
“Bipolar,” “autistic,” “schizo,” and “ADD” are words that should not be thrown around in conversation. These words are descriptors of real psychiatric disabilities that people actually possess. They are not metaphors for everyday behaviors that happen to bug us. When used to describe people you hate, you imply that the disabilities themselves are something to be hated.
Note: Most disabilities are not diseases. Do not refer to a person with a disability as a patient unless that person is in a hospital or care facility. In the context of occupational or physical therapy, the term client is preferable.
“Bipolar,” “autistic,” “schizo,” and “ADD” are words that we should never throw around in conversation. These words are descriptors of real psychiatric disabilities that people we know actually possess. They are not metaphors for everyday behaviors that happen to bug us. When you use them to describe people you hate (by the way, why are we being so mean to each other?), you imply that the disabilities themselves are something to be hated. - See more at:
Potential Issues
Although the majority of disability advocacy groups and members of the disability community generally accept the term “disability,” there are some who believe that even the term “disability” itself is pejorative. Some people may often prefer to use terms such as “differently abled” and/or may characterize a disability as simply a difference rather than any sort of impediment, for example, members of Deaf Culture.  Again, it is advisable to ask people how they would they like to be addressed whenever it is relevant to the situation.  Remember, most of us will possibly face being disabled at some point in our lives; whether it comes sooner or later depends on our circumstances.

Glossary of Language
Focus: It’s important to remember that we come from diverse backgrounds and experiences that foster our full identities. We are not just what appears on the surface to be our singular or perceived dominant identity.

Preferred: "non-disabled" is the preferred term for people without disabilities.
     problematic: normal, able-bodied, healthy or whole
Preferred: person who is blind/visually impaired
     Problematic: blind person, “dumb”
Preferred: person who is deaf or hard-of-hearing
     Problematic: deaf person, Deaf-and-Dumb, Deaf-Mute
Preferred: person with a speech/communication impairment
     Problematic: dumb, speech impediment
Preferred: person who is learning disabled, person who has a cognitive disability, person with a learning or cognitive disability, persons
                 with intellectual and developmental disability
     Problematic: retarded, slow, brain-damaged, special education student
Preferred: person with a psychiatric disability; person with a mental health condition
     Problematic: mentally ill, hyper-sensitive, psycho, crazy, insane, wacko, nuts
Preferred: wheelchair user, person who is -  wheelchair mobile, physically disabled, quadriplegic, paraplegic
     Problematic: handicapped, physically challenged, invalid, “special”, deformed, cripple, gimp, spaz, wheelchair-bound, confined to a wheelchair, lame
Preferred: seeking help for emotional mental health, person who identifies as having an emotional disability
     Problematic: emotionally disturbed
Preferred: cognitively/developmentally delayed/disabled, person with a cognitive/developmental delay or disability, person with an intellectual disability
     Problematic: retard, mentally retarded, special ed student
Preferred: someone of short stature, little person
     Problematic: dwarf, midget
Preferred: person “living with” a specific disability, (i.e. “someone living with cancer or AIDS”)
     Problematic: victim, someone “stricken with” a disability (i.e. “someone stricken with cancer” or “an AIDS victim”)
"Afflicted with", “stricken with”, “suffers from”, “victim of”, and “confined to” are terms that are based on the assumption that a person with a disability is suffering or living a reduced quality of life. Instead, use neutral language when describing a person who has a disability. Not every person with a disability 'suffers,' is a 'victim' or is 'stricken.' Instead simply state the facts about the nature of the person's disability, preferably in the way that they have told you they want to be identified.


The following is a list of terms that arise when referring to race, ethnicity and culture.

Glossary of Language

Preferred: Black or African American
     Problematic:  negro, negroid, colored person, dark

:  U.S. citizen or Resident of the U.S.
     Problematic: American
Note: North Americans often use “American” which usually, depending on the context, fails to recognize South America
Preferred:  North American or South American
     Problematic: American:  assumes the U.S. is the only country inside these two continents.

Preferred: People of Color
     Problematic: Colored, Non-White
Note: In the U.S. context, “People of Color” usually refers to Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American, Latino/a, Hispanic, African American and biracial/multiracial people and should not be used synonymously with “Black” or “African American.”
Preferred: use the specific name of the country on the continent;  Africa; e.g., Egypt, Ethiopia
     Problematic:  Africa, which is a continent of many countries
Note: “African” is a broad term. Even though we know Africa as one of the seven continents, citizens prefer to identify with their country of origin, such as Ethiopian or Nigerian.

Preferred: Western Asian, Northern African people
     Problematic: Arabs
Note: The people of these regions of the world identify according to their genealogical, linguistic, or cultural backgrounds. When applicable, tribal affiliations and intra-tribal relationships play an important role in their identity.

Preferred: White people, European-American individuals
     Problematic: Caucasian people

Preferred: international people
     Problematic: foreigners

Preferred: Undocumented* immigrant or worker; person seeking asylum, refugee
     Problematic: illegal alien
*Although preferable to illegal (when we call a person illegal, we imply that they are an object), this term lacks recognition of the person’s humanity first.

Preferred: bi-racial people, multi-racial individuals when it is relevant to state this in a communication
     Problematic: mixed race people, mulatto

Preferred: Asian people, Asian American individuals
     Problematic: Orientals
Note:  Certain food may be labeled Oriental, and carpets may be “Oriental”, but not people’s identities.  The suffix “American” signifies that the person was born in or spent formative years in North America.

Preferred: Latino people or Latino/a people,
     Problematic: Spanish People (only appropriate for people from Spain; and, therefore, imprecise when referring to people from Latin, Central or South America)

Preferred: Native Americans or indigenous people or First Nation people (Often referring to native Canadians)
     Problematic: Indians (when referring to indigenous American people unless the person indicates that they preferred to be identified as Indian)
Multiracial: A term designating persons of interracial parentage or heritage.  This terms was added to the Census 2000 and has allowed interracial persons to select a more appropriate category that didn't force them to choose between parts of their heritage.  People consider themselves biracial when their heritage consists of two races.
Ethnicity: A group identity assigned to specific groups of people who share a common linguistic, religious and/or cultural heritage.  Ethnicity is not synonymous with "race".
Race: A group identity historically related to a local geographic or global human population traditionally distinguished as a group by genetically transmitted physical characteristics.  Race is believed to be a social construct, without biological merit that was designed to maintain slavery. 

You will find various definitions of sexual orientation among people of varying cultures, places of origin, generations, etc.
Gender Pronoun Guide (Click Here)
Some people may not feel comfortable using traditional gender pronouns (she/her, he/him) to fit their gender identities. Transgender, genderqueer, and gender-variant people may choose different pronouns for themselves. The attached guide is a starting point for using pronouns respectfully.

Glossary of Language
Preferred: Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity
     Problematic: Sexual Preference
The scientifically accurate term for an individual’s enduring physical, romantic and/or emotional attraction to members of the same and/or other sex, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and heterosexual (straight) orientations. Avoid the offensive term “sexual preference”, which is used to suggest that being gay or lesbian is voluntary and therefore “curable.”

Preferred: Gay, Lesbian, Same Gender Loving (SGL)
     Problematic: “Homosexual”
“Homosexual” is an outdated clinical term considered derogatory and offensive by many gay and lesbian people. Gay and/or lesbian accurately describe those who are attracted to people of the same sex or gender.  Same Gender Loving is sometimes used among African American sexual minority individuals.

Preferred: Sexual Minorities, Queer, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ)
     Problematic: People of an alternative “lifestyle” (when referring to sexuality)
“Lifestyle” is an inaccurate term used by anti-gay extremists to denigrate lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender lives. As there is not one straight lifestyle, there is not one lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender lifestyle. Queer, historically a derogatory term, has been reclaimed by many sexual minorities and their allies.  Queer is often used as an umbrella term to describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, transgender, and questioning (of sexuality and/or gender identity).

Preferred: People with intersex characteristics, individuals with ambiguous sexual organs
     Problematic/Outdated: Hermaphrodites
Intersex can be used when describing a person whose biological sex is ambiguous. There are many genetic, hormonal or anatomical variations that make a person’s sexual organs ambiguous (e.g., Klinefelter Syndrome). Parents and medical professionals usually assign intersex infants a sex and perform surgical procedures to conform the infant’s body to the chosen assignment.

Note: the intersex community speaks out against non-consensual, premature and unsound practices.  The term intersex is not interchangeable with or a synonym for transgender.

: Sexual Reassignment Surgery (SRS), Gender Reaffirming Surgery, Gender Confirming Surgery
     Problematic/Outdated: Sex Change
Refers to surgical alteration, and is only one small part of transition (see transition directly above on intersex characteristics).  Not all transgender people choose to, or can afford to have Sexual Reassignment Surgery.  Journalists and researchers should avoid overemphasizing the role of SRS in the transition process.

Glossary of Terms

The fear, hatred and/or dislike of people who are or are perceived to be bisexual.
Note: This includes prejudice, discrimination, harassment and acts of violence. It can often manifest as discrediting or doubting the existence of bisexuality.

A range of different identities wherein a person is comfortable identifying with the sex or gender they were assigned at birth.

A pervasive and institutionalized system that places transgender people in the “other” category and treats their needs and identities as less important than those of cisgender people.
Note: This includes the lack of gender-neutral restrooms, locker rooms, and residences.

Coming out (of the closet)
The process of being open about one’s own sexual orientation and/or gender identity. This may include telling friends, family, loved ones, co-workers, acquaintances, etc.
Note: This may be a difficult process; a person should not be forced to come out to anyone for any reason. Each individual should be respected to choose who they come out to and when.  Acceptance and support help people at this time. 
Gender Expression
Refers to all external characteristics and behaviors that are socially defined as either masculine or feminine, e.g., dress, mannerisms, speech patterns and social interactions.
Gender Identity
A person's internal definition of self as man, woman, or transgendered. One's gender identity may or may not be conguent with one's biological sex or traits typically associated with one's biological sex. Not to be confused with sexual orientation, which determines one's primary attraction to another gender.

The presumption that heterosexuality is universal and/or superior to other sexual orientations
Example of perpetuation of hetero-normativity - seeing a ring on a woman’s finger and saying “congratulations, what’s his name?”
This illustrates the assumption that the woman is heterosexual or that she is in a relationship with a person of male gender.
Note: Even though it may seem this way in some relationships where one person is more masculine and/or feminine than the other, the idea of someone being “the man” and the other being “the woman” is a reflection of a hetero-normative society.

Prejudice, bias, or discriminations based on the presumption that heterosexuality is universal and/or superior to other sexual orientations.

The fear, hatred and/or dislike of people who are attracted - or are perceived to be attracted to a person of the same sex or gender.
Note: Homophobia may result in acts of prejudice, discrimination, harassment and violence. It is possible for someone who is attracted to people of the same gender to be homophobic. This is called “internalized homophobia”, which means having negative feelings toward oneself because we live in a homophobic society – or something like that.

To Be Out
To be open about your sexual orientation and/or your gender identity
Note: A person may be out only in a particular area of their life, for example, they may only be out to friends, but not to family or vice versa. It can never be assumed that someone is out to everyone.
To reveal an individual’s sexual orientation and/or gender identity, “to out someone”, is a violation of an individual’s right to self-identify and may result in life-threatening consequences. Each person chooses when and with whom they want to share their identity.

Sexual Orientation
A person’s innate, enduring physical, emotional and/or spiritual attraction toward others
Note: This attraction is typically, but not always, specific to a particular gender (or to multiple genders).  For example, some people are attracted only to men or women; other people are attracted to both men and women, and some others’ attractions transcend gender (e.g., they are attracted to specific traits or characteristics, regardless of their gender).
Sexual behavior is an action that a person chooses, but that action does not necessarily define a person’s orientation as gay, straight, bisexual, pansexual or asexual.

The fear, hatred, and/or dislike of people who are/or are perceived to be outside of the socially constructed systems of sex and/or gender.
Note: Transphobia may result in acts of prejudice, discrimination, harassment and violence.


The following commonly used terms are explained for the purpose of avoiding sexism and inaccuracies.

First, it is essential to discuss the concept of gender.  Gender is a socially constructed system to classify traits, appearance and/or other things as masculine, male, feminine, and/or female.  It is important to note that although masculinity is typically ascribed to biological males, and femininity is typically ascribed to biological females, those connections are socially constructed and, therefore, are not always accurate.
Gender Pronoun Guide (Click Here)
Some people may not feel comfortable using traditional gender pronouns (she/her, he/him) to fit their gender identities. Transgender, genderqueer, and gender-variant people may choose different pronouns for themselves. The attached guide is a starting point for using pronouns respectfully.

Glossary of Language
Preferred: Folks, People, You All, Y’all
     Problematic/Outdated: Guys (when referring to people overall)

Preferred: Women
     Problematic/Outdated: Girls (when referring to adult women)
Preferred: Workforce, personnel, workers
    Problematic/Outdated: manpower
Preferred: Human achievements
   Problematic/Outdated: man's achievements
Preferred: The average person, people in general
   Problematic/Outdated: the average man
Preferred: Chairperson, chair, moderator, discussion leader
   Problematic/Outdated: chairman (the head of an academic department, meeting or organization)
Preferred:  First-year students
   Problematic/Outdated: freshmen

Preferred: doctor, nurse, lawyer, professor, secretary
   Specify gender only if relevant and/or necessary for discussion. 
   Avoid gender stereotyping:   the secretary  . . . she,  the professor/supervisor . . . he
Preferred: supervisorpolice officer, flight attendant, homemaker, postal worker/mail carrier
  Problematic/Outdated: foreman, policeman, stewardess, housewife, mailman
Preferred: The boys chose (specify), The students behaved in the following way (specify), He did the following (specify)
    Problematic: The boys chose typically male toys. The student's behavior was typically female. He acts like an old women
    Being specific reduces the possibility of stereotypical bias.

Preferred: Thanks to the administrative assistants for their work on the project
    Problematic: Thank the girls in the office for typing the reports
Preferred: Women's movement, feminist, supporter of women's rights
   Problematic/Outdated: women's lib, women's libber
Preferred: Scientists/researchers/adminstrators are often separated from their spouses/partners when their research requires them to travel
   Problematic: Scientists/researchers/adminstrators are often separated from their wives when their research . . . .
Preferred: parenting, nurturing (or specify exact behavior)
   Problematic/Outdated: mothering, fathering    Unless gender is specifically implied, avoid gendering a non-gendered activity
Preferred: Other Sex
     Problematic/Outdated: Opposite Sex

Preferred: Children who are gender non-conforming, Children who are gender variant
     Problematic/Outdated: Girlie or Tomboy

Preferred: Transgender Individual
     Problematic/Outdated: Tranny

Preferred: Cisgender/Cissexual/Cis
     Problematic/Outdated: Biological /Genetic/Natal/ “normal” gender

Preferred: Assigned Sex
     Problematic/Outdated: Biological/Genetic/Natal/ “normal” sex

Preferred: Affirmed gender, Affirmed girl, Affirmed boy
     Problematic/Outdated: “Real” Gender, “Real” Girl, “Real” Boy

Glossary of Terms

Gender Attribution

The act of assuming someone’s gender upon first impressions based usually on their appearance
Note: The gender attributed to a person does not always coincide with that person’s stated gender identity.

Gender Expression
The way an individual expresses their gender through their clothing, attitude, hairstyle, etc.
Note: Many times homophobic attacks are actually attacks on an individual’s perceived gender expression and not necessarily their sexual orientation since it is not something you can actually see about a person.

Gender Identity
One’s innate inner feeling of being a man, woman, both or neither.
Note: Gender identity may or may not be associated with one’s physical body.


Thank you to the many editors and proofreaders of this outreach to build a better campus climate at UNH.
Writers and editors: Sylvia Foster, Szu-Hui Lee, Joelle Ruby Ryan, Sean Moundas, Janice Pierson and the Women’s Commission members in the 1990's  who drafted the "Guide to Non-Sexist Language" to inspire conversations about accuracy and creativity in language.

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Top 25 Countries for Property Rights

2011 List

1. New Zealand (95 index)
2. The Netherlands (90)
3. Switzerland (90)
4. Sweden (90)
5. Singapore (90)
6. Norway (90)
7. Luxembourg (90)
8. Ireland (90)
9. Iceland (90)
10. Hong Kong (90)
11. Germany (90)
12. Finland (90)
13. Denmark (90)
14. Canada (90)
15. Austria (90)
16. United States (85)
17. United Kingdom (85)
18. Chile (85)
19. Japan (80)
20. France (80)
21. Estonia (80)
22. Cyprus (80)
23. Belgium (80)
24. Barbados (80)
25. Uruguay (70)

Source: The Heritage Foundation

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The Gettysburg Address

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."

-- Abraham Lincoln
November 19, 1863

List of the Enumerated Powers of Congress

Section 8: The Congress shall have power To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

To establish post offices and post roads;

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;—And

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

A List of American Third Parties

* America First Party (2002) * American Party (1968) * America's Independent Party (2008) * Boston Tea Party (2006) * Communist Party of the United States of America (1919) * Constitution Party (1992) * Florida Whig Party (2006) * Green Party (1996) * Independence Party of America (2007) * Libertarian Party (1971) * Moderate Party (2006) * Modern Whig Party (2008) * National Socialist Movement (1959) * New American Independent Party (2004) * Objectivist Party (2008) * Party for Socialism and Liberation (2004) * Peace and Freedom Party (1967) * Pirate Party of the United States (2006) * Progressive Labor Party (1961) * Prohibition Party (1869) * Reform Party of the United States of America (1995) * Socialist Party USA (1973) * Socialist Workers Party (1938) * United States Marijuana Party (2002) * Unity Party of America (2004) * Workers Party (2003) * Working Families Party (1998) Source: Wikipedia

Best States for Business (2009)

  • Wyoming
  • South Dakota
  • Nevada
  • Alaska
  • Florida
  • Montana
  • Texas
  • New Hampshire
  • Oregon
  • Delaware

Speakers of the House

1st Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania, Apr 01, 1789

2nd Jonathan Trumbull, Connecticut, Oct 24, 1791

3rd Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania, Dec 02, 1793

4th, 5th Jonathan Dayton, New Jersey, Dec 07, 1795

6th Theodore Sedgwick, Massachusetts, Dec 02, 1799

7th-9th Nathaniel Macon, North Carolina, Dec 07, 1801

10th, 11th Joseph B. Varnum, Massachusetts, Oct 26, 1807

12th, 13th Henry Clay, Kentucky, Nov 04, 1811

13th Langdon Cheves, South Carolina, Jan 19, 1814

14th-16th Henry Clay, Kentucky, Dec 04, 1815

16th John W. Taylor, New York, Nov 15, 1820

17th Philip P. Barbour, Virginia, Dec 04, 1821

18th Henry Clay, Kentucky, Dec 01, 1823

19th John W. Taylor, New York, Dec 05, 1825

20th-22nd Andrew Stevenson, Virginia, Dec 03, 1827

23rd John Bell, Tennessee, Jun 02, 1834

24th, 25th James K. Polk, Tennessee, Dec 07, 1835

26th Robert M.T. Hunter, Virginia, Dec 16, 1839

27th John White, Kentucky, May 31, 1841

28th John W. Jones, Virginia, Dec 04, 1843

29th John W. Davis, Indiana, Dec 01, 1845

30th Robert C. Winthrop, Massachusetts, Dec 06, 1847

31st Howell Cobb, Georgia, Dec 22, 1849

32nd, 33rd Linn Boyd, Kentucky, Dec 01, 1851

34th Nathaniel P. Banks, Massachusetts, Feb 02, 1856

35th James L. Orr, South Carolina, Dec 07, 1857

36th William Pennington, New Jersey, Feb 01, 1860

37th Galusha A. Grow, Pennsylvania, Jul 04, 1861

38th-40th Schuyler Colfax, Indiana, Dec 07, 1863

40th Theodore M. Pomeroy,New York, Mar 03, 1869

41st-43rd James G. Blaine, Maine, Mar 04, 1869

44th Michael C. Kerr, Indiana, Dec 06, 1875

44th-46th Samuel J. Randall, Pennsylvania, Dec 04, 1876

47th J. Warren Keifer, Ohio, Dec 05, 1881

48th-50th John G. Carlisle, Kentucky, Dec 03, 1883

51st Thomas B. Reed, Maine, Dec 02, 1889

52nd, 53rd Charles F. Crisp, Georgia, Dec 08, 1891

54th, 55th Thomas B. Reed, Maine, Dec 02, 1895

56th, 57th David B. Henderson, Iowa, Dec 04, 1899

58th-61st Joseph G. Cannon, Illinois, Nov 09, 1903

62nd-65th James Beauchamp Clark, Missouri, Apr 04, 1911

66th-68th Frederick H. Gillett, Massachusetts, May 19, 1919

69th-71st Nicholas Longworth, Ohio, Dec 07, 1925

72nd John N. Garner, Texas, Dec 07, 1931

73rd Henry T. Rainey, Illinois, Mar 09, 1933

74th Joseph W. Byrns, Tennessee, Jan 03, 1935

74th-76th William B. Bankhead, Alabama, Jun 04, 1936

76th-79th Sam Rayburn, Texas, Sep 16, 1940

80th Joseph W. Martin, Jr., Massachusetts, Jan 03, 1947

81st, 82nd Sam Rayburn, Texas, Jan 03, 1949

83rd Joseph W. Martin, Jr., Massachusetts, Jan 03, 1953

84th-87th Sam Rayburn, Texas, Jan 05, 1955

87th-91st John W. McCormack, Massachusetts, Jan 10, 1962

92nd-94th Carl B. Albert, Oklahoma, Jan 21, 1971

95th-99th Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., Massachusetts, Jan 04, 1977

100th, 101st James C. Wright, Jr., Texas, Jan 06, 1987

101st-103rd Thomas S. Foley, Washington, Jun 06, 1989

104th, 105th Newt Gingrich, Georgia, Jan 04, 1995

106th-109th J. Dennis Hastert, Illinois, Jan 06, 1999

110th, 111th Nancy Pelosi, California, Jan 04, 2007

112th, 113th, 114th John Boehner, Ohio, Jan, 2011

BLOATED Bastids: List of US Government Departments and Agences

Conservative, Republican & Libertarian Celebrities

  • Aaron Tippin
  • Adam Carolla
  • Adam Sandler
  • Al Leiter
  • Alabama
  • Alan Jackson
  • Alice Cooper
  • Amy Grant
  • Andy Garcia
  • Angie Harmon
  • Anita Louise
  • Ann Miller
  • Arnold Palmer
  • Avenged Sevenfold
  • Barret Swatek
  • Belinda Carlisle
  • Ben Stein
  • Bill Belichick
  • Billy Ray Cyrus
  • Bo Derek
  • Bobby Bowden
  • Bobby Steele
  • Brooks and Dunn
  • Bruce Boxleitner
  • Bruce Willis
  • Candace Bushnell
  • Candace Cameron Bure
  • Carrie Underwood
  • Catherine Hicks
  • Chad Sexton
  • Charlie Daniels
  • Charlton Heston
  • Chelsea Noble
  • Cheryl Ladd
  • Chris Evert
  • Chuck Norris
  • Cindy Williams
  • Clint Black
  • Clint Eastwood
  • Connie Stevens
  • Craig T. Nelson
  • Crystal Bernard
  • Curt Schilling
  • Daddy Yankee
  • Dale Earnhardt Jr.
  • Danny Aiello
  • Darryl Worley
  • Dave Mustaine
  • Dave Smalley
  • David Lynch
  • Deanna Lund
  • Delta Burke
  • Dennis Franz
  • Dennis Miller
  • Dick Van Patten
  • Dina Merrill
  • Dixie Carter
  • Don Shula
  • Drew Carey
  • Eazy-E
  • Elisabeth Hasselbeck
  • Emma Caulfield
  • Ernie Banks
  • Ethel Merman
  • Eva Gabor
  • Frankie Avalon
  • Gail O'Grady
  • Gary Sinise
  • Gerald McRaney
  • Ginger Rogers
  • Gloria Estefan
  • Gretchen Wilson
  • Hank Williams
  • Hank Williams Jr.
  • Heather Locklear
  • Heather Whitestone
  • Hedda Hopper
  • Heidi Montag
  • Helen Hayes
  • Hilary Duff
  • India Allen
  • Jack Nicklaus
  • Jackie Mason
  • Jaclyn Smith
  • James Brown
  • James Caan
  • James Caviezel
  • James Woods
  • Jamie Farr
  • Jane Wyman
  • Janine Turner
  • Jason Sehorn
  • Jeanette MacDonald
  • Jeff Baxter
  • Jennifer Flavin
  • Jerry Bruckheimer
  • Jinx Falkenburg
  • Joan Rivers
  • Joe Escalante
  • Joe Perry
  • John Elway
  • John Malkovich
  • John Ratzenberger
  • John Rich
  • Johnny Ramone
  • Jon Cryer
  • Jon Voight
  • June Allyson
  • Kansas
  • Karl Malone
  • Kathie Lee Gifford
  • Kathy Ireland
  • Keith Morris
  • Kellie Pickler
  • Kelsey Grammar
  • Kenny Chesney
  • Kerri Strug
  • Kid Rock
  • Kim Alexis
  • Kirk Cameron
  • Lance Armstrong
  • Lara Flynn Boyle
  • Larry the Cable Guy
  • Laura Prepon
  • LeAnn Rimes
  • Lee Ann Womack
  • Lee Greenwood
  • Lee Ving
  • Leeann Tweeden
  • Lorenzo Lamas
  • Loretta Lynn
  • Lorrie Morgan
  • Lou Ferrigno
  • Louella Parsons
  • Lynard Skynard
  • Lynn Swann
  • Margaret Hamilton
  • Marie Osmond
  • Mark Chesnutt
  • Martina McBride
  • Mary Hart
  • Mary Lou Retton
  • Matt Hasselbeck
  • Maureen O'Hara
  • Meat Loaf
  • Mel Gibson
  • Merle Haggard
  • Michael W. Smith
  • Mike Ditka
  • Mike Love
  • Morgan Brittany
  • Naomi Judd
  • Nick Lachey
  • Nolan Ryan
  • Norm McDonald
  • Pat Sajak
  • Patricia Cornwell
  • Patricia Heaton
  • Paula Prentiss
  • Pete Sampras
  • R. Lee Ermey
  • Rachel Hunter
  • Randy Travis
  • Rebecca St. James
  • Ric Flair
  • Richard Petty
  • Rick Schroeder
  • Ricky Skaggs
  • Rip Torn
  • Robert Conrad
  • Robert Davi
  • Robert Duvall
  • Roger Penske
  • Ron Silver
  • Salvador Dali
  • Sam Shepard
  • Sammy Haggar
  • Sara Evans
  • Sarah Michelle Gellar
  • Scott Baio
  • Sela Ward
  • Shannen Doherty
  • Shawnee Smith
  • Shirley Jones
  • Shirley Temple
  • Skrewdriver
  • Stephen Baldwin
  • Styx
  • Susan Lucci
  • Tammy Grimes
  • Ted Nugent
  • Tim Tebow
  • Tippi Hedrin
  • Tom Clancy
  • Tom Selleck
  • Tony Danza
  • Trace Adkins
  • Tracy Scoggins
  • Travis Tritt
  • Type O Negative
  • Victoria Jackson
  • Vince Flynn
  • Vincent Gallo
  • Wayne Newton
  • Wilfred Brimley
  • Yaphet Kotto
  • Yvette Mimieux
  • Zig Ziglar

The Interested American Ranking of the Presidents of the United States of America

Abraham Lincoln
Ronald Reagan
James Madison
Thomas Jefferson
George Washington
John Adams
James K. Polk
William McKinley
Calvin Coolidge
William Taft
George W. Bush
Theodore Roosevelt
James Monroe
Andrew Jackson
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Harry S. Truman
Benjamin Harrison
John F. Kennedy

Zachary Taylor
Benjamin Harrison
Ulysses Grant
Grover Cleveland
Chester Arthur
Martin Van Buren
John Tyler
William Henry Harrison

George HW Bush
John Q. Adams
Gerald Ford
Millard Fillmore
Franklin Pierce
Rutherford B. Hayes
Warren Harding
Andrew Johnson
James Buchanan
Herbert Hoover
Bill Clinton
Richard Nixon
Franklin D. Roosevelt
James Carter
Woodrow Wilson
Barack Hussein Obama
Lyndon Baines Johnson

45 Goals of the Communist Party (1963)

  • 01. U.S. acceptance of coexistence as the only alternative to atomic war.
  • 02. U.S. willingness to capitulate in preference to engaging in atomic war.
  • 03. Develop the illustion that total disarmament by the United States would be a demonstration of moral strength.
  • 04. Permit free trade between all nations regardless of Communist affiliation and regardless of whether or not items could be used for war.
  • 05. Extension of long-term loans to Russia and Soviet satellites.
  • 06. Provide American aid to all nations regardless of Communist domination.
  • 07. Grant recognition of Red China. Admission of Red China to the U.N.
  • 08. Set up East and West Germany as separate states in spite of Khrushchev's promise in 1955 to settle the German question by free elections under the supervision of the U.N.
  • 09. Prolong the conferences to ban atomic tests because the United States has agreed to suspend tests as long as negotiations are in progress.
  • 10. Allow all Soviet satellites individual representation in the U.N.
  • 11. Promote the U.N. as the only hope for mankind. If its charter is rewritten, demand that it be set up as a one-world government with its own independent armed forces. (Some Communist leaders believe the world can be taken over as easily by the U.N. as by Moscow. Sometimes these two centers compete with each other as they are now doing in the Congo.)
  • 12. Resist any attempt to outlaw the Communist Party.
  • 13. Do away with all loyalty oaths.
  • 14. Continue giving Russia access to the U.S. Patent Office.
  • 15. Capture one or both of the political parties in the United States.
  • 16. Use technical decisions of the courts to weaken basic American institutions by claiming their activities violate civil rights.
  • 17. Get control of the schools. Use them as transmission belts for socialism and current Communist propaganda. Soften the curriculum. Get control of teachers' associations. Put the party line in textbooks.
  • 18. Gain control of all student newspapers.
  • 19. Use student riots to foment public protests against programs or organizations which are under Communist attack.
  • 20. Infiltrate the press. Get control of book-review assignments, editorial writing, policymaking positions.
  • 21. Gain control of key positions in radio, TV, and motion pictures.
  • 22. Continue discrediting American culture by degrading all forms of artistic expression. An American Communist cell was told to "eliminate all good sculpture from parks and buildings, substitute shapeless, awkward and meaningless forms."
  • 23. Control art critics and directors of art museums. "Our plan is to promote ugliness, repulsive, meaningless art."
  • 24. Eliminate all laws governing obscenity by calling them "censorship" and a violation of free speech and free press.
  • 25. Break down cultural standards of morality by promoting pornography and obscenity in books, magazines, motion pictures, radio, and TV.
  • 26. Present homosexuality, degeneracy and promiscuity as "normal, natural, healthy."
  • 27. Infiltrate the churches and replace revealed religion with "social" religion. Discredit the Bible and emphasize the need for intellectual maturity which does not need a "religious crutch."
  • 28. Eliminate prayer or any phase of religious expression in the schools on the ground that it violates the principle of "separation of church and state."
  • 29. Discredit the American Constitution by calling it inadequate, old-fashioned, out of step with modern needs, a hindrance to cooperation between nations on a worldwide basis.
  • 30. Discredit the American Founding Fathers. Present them as selfish aristocrats who had no concern for the "common man."
  • 31. Belittle all forms of American culture and discourage the teaching of American history on the ground that it was only a minor part of the "big picture." Give more emphasis to Russian history since the Communists took over.
  • 32. Support any socialist movement to give centralized control over any part of the culture--education, social agencies, welfare programs, mental health clinics, etc.
  • 33. Eliminate all laws or procedures which interfere with the operation of the Communist apparatus.
  • 34. Eliminate the House Committee on Un-American Activities.
  • 35. Discredit and eventually dismantle the FBI.
  • 36. Infiltrate and gain control of more unions.
  • 37. Infiltrate and gain control of big business.
  • 38. Transfer some of the powers of arrest from the police to social agencies. Treat all behavioral problems as psychiatric disorders which no one but psychiatrists can understand [or treat].
  • 39. Dominate the psychiatric profession and use mental health laws as a means of gaining coercive control over those who oppose Communist goals.
  • 40. Discredit the family as an institution. Encourage promiscuity and easy divorce.
  • 41. Emphasize the need to raise children away from the negative influence of parents. Attribute prejudices, mental blocks and retarding of children to suppressive influence of parents.
  • 42. Create the impression that violence and insurrection are legitimate aspects of the American tradition; that students and special-interest groups should rise up and use ["]united force["] to solve economic, political or social problems.
  • 43. Overthrow all colonial governments before native populations are ready for self-government.
  • 44. Internationalize the Panama Canal.
  • 45. Repeal the Connally reservation so the United States cannot prevent the World Court from seizing jurisdiction [over domestic problems. Give the World Court jurisdiction] over nations and individuals alike.

List of All United States Supreme Court Justices

Jay, John (1789-1795)
Rutledge, John (1789-1791), (1795)
Cushing, William (1789-1810)
Wilson, James (1789-1798)
Blair, John Jr. (1789-1795)
Iredell, James (1790-1799)
Johnson, Thomas (1791-1793)
Paterson, William (1793-1806)
Chase, Samuel (1796-1811)
Ellsworth, Oliver (1796-1800)
Washington, Bushrod (1798-1829)
Moore, Alfred (1799-1804)
Marshall, John (1801-1835)
Johnson, William Jr. (1804-1834)
Livingston, Henry Brockholst (1806-1823)
Todd, Thomas (1807-1826)
Duvall, Gabriel (1811-1835)
Story, Joseph (1811-1845)
Thompson, Smith (1823-1843)
Trimble, Robert (1826-1828)
McLean, John (1829-1861)
Baldwin, Henry (1830-1844)
Wayne, James Moore (1835-1867)
Barbour, Philip Pendelton (1836-1841)
Taney, Roger Brooke (1836-1864)
Catron, John (1837-1865)
McKinley, John (1837-1852)
Daniel, Peter Vivian (1841-1860)
Nelson, Samuel (1845-1872)
Woodbury, Levi (1845-1851)
Grier, Robert Cooper (1846-1870)
Curtis, Benjamin Robbins (1851-1857)
Campbell, John Archibald (1853-1861)
Clifford, Nathan (1858-1881)
Swayne, Noah Haynes (1862-1881)
Miller, Samuel Freeman (1862-1890)
Davis, David (1862-1877)
Field, Stephen Johnson (1863-1897)
Chase, Salmon Portland (1864-1873)
Strong, William (1870-1880)
Bradley, Joseph P. (1870-1892)
Hunt, Ward (1872-1882)
Waite, Morrison Remick (1874-1888)
Harlan, John Marshall (1877-1911)
Woods, William Burnham (1880-1887)
Matthews, Stanley (1881-1889)
Gray, Horace (1881-1902)
Blatchford, Samuel M. (1882-1893)
Lamar, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus (1888-1893)
Fuller, Melville Weston (1888-1910)
Brewer, David Josiah (1889-1910)
Brown, Henry Billings (1890-1906)
Shiras, George Jr. (1892-1903)
Jackson, Howell Edmunds (1893-1895)
White, Edward Douglass (1894-1921)
Peckham, Rufus Wheeler (1895-1909)
McKenna, Joseph (1898-1925)
Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr. (1902-1932)
Day, William Rufus (1903-1922)
Moody, William Henry (1906-1910)
Lurton, Horace Harmon (1909-1914)
Hughes, Charles Evans (1910-1916), (1930-1948)
Van Devanter, Willis (1910-1941)
Lamar, Joseph Rucker (1910-1916)
Pitney, Mahlon (1912-1922)
McReynolds, James Clark (1914-1946)
Brandeis, Louis Dembitz (1916-1941)
Clarke, John Hessin (1916-1922)
Taft, William Howard (1921-1930)
Sutherland, George (1922-1942)
Butler, Pierce (1922-1939)
Sanford, Edward Terry (1923-1930)
Stone, Harlan Fiske (1925-1946)
Roberts, Owen Josephus (1930-1945)
Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan (1932-1938)
Black, Hugo Lafayette (1937-1971)
Reed, Stanley Forman (1938-1980)
Frankfurter, Felix (1939-1965)
Douglas, William Orville (1939-1980)
Murphy, Frank (1940-1949)
Byrnes, James Francis (1941-1942)
Jackson, Robert Houghwout (1941-1954)
Rutledge, Wiley Blount (1943-1949)
Burton, Harold Hitz (1945-1964)
Vinson, Frederick Moore (1946-1953)
Clark, Tom C. (1949-1977)
Minton, Sherman (1949-1965)
Warren, Earl (1953-1974)
Harlan, John Marshall (1955-1971)
Brennan, William Joseph Jr. (1956-1997)
Whittaker, Charles Evans (1957-1965)
Stewart, Potter (1958-1985)
White, Byron Raymond (1962-2002)
Goldberg, Arthur Joseph (1962-1965)
Fortas, Abe (1965-1969)
Marshall, Thurgood (1967-1993)
Burger, Warren Earl (1969-1995)
Blackmun, Harry Andrew (1970-1999)
Powell, Lewis Franklin Jr. (1971-1998)
Rehnquist, William Hubbs (1971-2005)
Stevens, John Paul (1975-2010)
O`Connor, Sandra Day (1981-2005)
Scalia, Antonin (1986-present)
Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (1988-present)
Souter, David Hackett (1990-2009)
Thomas, Clarence (1991-present)
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (1993-present)
Breyer, Stephen Gerald (1994-present)
Roberts, John Glover Jr. (2005-present)
Alito, Samuel A. Jr. (2006-present)
Sotomayor, Sonia (2009-present)
Elana Kagan (2010-present)

Ranking Countries by Economic Freedom

Hong Kong
New Zealand
United States
United Kingdom
The Netherlands
Saint Lucia
South Korea
El Salvador
Czech Republic
United Arab Emirates
The Bahamas
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Costa Rica
Trinidad and Tobago
Saudi Arabia
South Africa
Cape Verde
Kyrgyz Republic
Dominican Republic
Burkina Faso
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sri Lanka
Cote d'Ivoire
Papua New Guinea
Sao Tome and Principe
Equatorial Guinea
Central African Republic
Sierra Leone
Republic of Congo
Solomon Islands
Democratic Republic of Congo
North Korea

Not Indexed:

Source: 2010 Index of Economic Freedom, The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal.

The Bill of Rights

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Right to Work States

  • Alabama
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Idaho
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Virginia
  • Wyoming

Top Conservative Colleges in America

Ave Maria University, CONS
Benedictine College, CONS
Brighham Young University, PR08, CONS,
Calvin College, USN06,
Cedarville University, EHOW
Christendom College, YAF10, CONS,
College of the Ozarks, YAF10, PR08,
Evangel University, CONS
Franciscan University of Steubenville, YAF10, CONS, EHOW
Grove City College, YAF10, PR08, CONS,
Harding University, YAF10
Hampden-Sydney College, PR08,
Hillsdale College, YAF10, PR08, CONS
The King's College, YAF10, CONS,
Liberty University, YAF10, USN06, CONS,
Newberry College, CONS
Ohio Wesleyan University, EHOW
Patrick Henry College, YAF10, CONS,
Regent University, YAF10
Saint Vincent College, YAF10
Thomas Aquinas College, YAF10, CONS,
Thomas More College, YAF10
United States Airforce Academy, PR08
United States Coast Guard Academy, CONS
United States Merchant Marine Academy, PR08
United States Naval Academy, PR08
University of Dallas, PR08, CONS
Wheaton College, PR08
Wisconsin Lutheran College, YAF10

CONS — Conservapedia
PR08 — Princeton Review 2008.
YAF10 — Young America's Foundation 2009-2010.
USN06 — US News and World Report 2006.

The Worst Mass Murderers in History

1. Mao Tse Tung (China) Roughly 70 million murdered.
2. Josef Stalin (Soviet Union) Roughly 23 million murdered.
3. Adolf Hitler (Germany) Roughly 12 million murdered.
4. Ismail Enver (Turkey) Roughly 2.5 million murdered.
5. Pol Pot (Cambodia) Roughly 1.7 million murdered.

Hirohito (Japan)
Vladimir Lenin (Soviet Union)
Saddam Hussein (Iraq)
Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)
Kim Il Sung (North Korea)
Ion Antonescu (Romania)
Fidel Castro (Cuba)
Che Guevara (Argentina)
Robespierre (France)
Idi Amin (Uganda)
Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe)
Radovan Karadzic (Bosnia)
Francisco Franco (Spain)
Osama Bin Laden (Al-Qaeda)